what is cbd gel

What is cbd gel

“It might be that cannabidiol by itself is helpful for pain, but at this point we don’t know that,” Cooper says.

“There’s really no substitute for doing proper human studies, which are difficult, expensive, and ethically complicated,” Dr. Tishler says. And we simply don’t have them for CBD and pain.

But that’s not quite as exciting for CBD as it sounds: “We don’t know cannabidiol’s effects on its own,” says Cooper, who was part of the National Academies committee that put together this report. “[The conclusions about cannabis and cannabinoids] were based on what we know about THC or THC plus cannabidiol.”

Here’s what the research says about using CBD for pain.

The studies we do have about CBD for pain are all animal studies. For example, in a 2017 study published in Pain, researchers gave rats an injection into one of their knee joints to model osteoarthritis. Rats then either received doses of CBD or saline directly into an artery in the knee joint. Results showed that, after receiving CBD, rats showed less inflammation in the joint area and fewer pain-related behaviors (like shaking or withdrawing the affected paw or not being able to bear weight in that paw) compared to those that received saline.

In fact, the most compelling research they found for using cannabinoids for pain came from a large review and meta-analysis published in JAMA in 2015. For the study, researchers looked at results from 79 previous studies of cannabinoids and various medical conditions, including chronic pain. However, of those studies, only four involved CBD (without THC)—none of which were looking at pain. So although we might assume that CBD is doing something to help address pain—according to the studies involving the whole cannabis plant—we don’t have great evidence to prove it.

What is CBD?

But if you’re reading this, you are probably not a rat, which means these results aren’t directly applicable to your life. Although we know that rats do share much of our physiology—including CB1 and CB2 receptors—these studies don’t really tell us if humans would have the same results with CBD.

“Cannabidiol is a super messy drug,” Ziva Cooper, Ph.D., research director of the UCLA Cannabis Research Initiative in the Jane and Terry Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior and the department of psychiatry and biobehavioral sciences, tells SELF. “It has lots and lots of targets and it’s not clear how much of its effects on each target contribute to the potential pain relieving effects.”

What is cbd gel

All gels, including vehicle controls, were prepared by weighing the desired amount of CBD (gift from NIDA) and dissolving it in ethanol (72.5% w/w). Once dissolved, nanopure water (Barntead NANOpure ® Diamond ™ ultrapure filtration system, Dubuque, IA, USA) was added followed by isopropyl myristate (Fisher Scientific, Fairlawn, NJ, USA). Carbopol ® 980 polymere (Noveon Inc., Cleveland, OH, USA) was added (0.9% w/w) and the solution sonicated for 10 min to ensure complete incorporation of the Carbopol ® 980. Polymerization of Carbopol ® 980 to form the hydroalcoholic gel was initiated by adding sodium hydroxide (0.1 N). Gels were then sonicated for 10 min, loaded into 1 mL syringes and sealed. Gels made just prior to the initial dosing were used for the entire week since no degradation was observed and plasma CBD concentration remained constant.

2.1 Animals

Potential for adverse side-effects on activity levels or motor abilities stemming from CBD gel application were assessed by monitoring open-field exploratory behaviour of naive animals for 45 min prior to and directly after treatment. Irrespective of the amount of CBD applied onto the back of animals, no changes were detected for total time spent in either exploratory activity or resting ( Fig. 2C and D ). Two other specific exploratory activities acquired in the open-field test but not affected by CBD were rearing events in which the animals rise on their hindlimbs to explore the environment and the total distance travelled during the 45 min test (data not shown). This indicates that CBD did not alter the animals’ activity levels or motor abilities.

3.2 Knee joint inflammation

Immunostaining of fluorescent labelled tissue was visualized using a Nikon Eclipse E1000 microscope equipped with a Cool Snap photometric Camera ES and analysed off-line with MetaMorph software. Camera settings were kept constant within an antibody staining to quantify and compare immunoreactivity. Images of the dorsal horn were analysed by outlining the substantia gelatinosa, determining and averaging the mean intensity of staining in this region. Background fluorescent intensity was measured outside of this area and subtracted. DRG sections were sampled by drawing regions of interest over five randomly selected sensory neuron somas, measuring the mean intensity and averaging for each animal sampled. Histological analysis was conducted in the four experimental groups: naive (uninjected control animals), CFA + VEH (monoarthritis treated with vehicle gel), CFA + low-dose CBD (monoarthritis treated with 0.62 or 3.1 mg/day CBD) and CFA + high-dose CBD (monoarthritis treated with 6.2 or 62.3 mg/day CBD). Mean intensities were averaged and compared across treatment groups.