Grass Weed Seeds

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Suppliers of wildflowers, native seeds and Eco-Lawn grass seed for natural landscaping, wildflower gardens, and land restoration. Learn how to identify and treat the 10 most common lawn weeds such as nutsedge, crabgrass and dandelion. Grassy weeds are true grasses or monocots. A grass seed germinates and emerges as one single leaf. It develops hollow, rounded stems and nodes (joints)…

Crabgrass

Crabgrass is a warm season annual weed that invades lawns that are thin, weak and undernourished. It germinates from seed in late spring once soil temperatures have reached 50 F (10C). During the summer it develops into a ground-hugging weed that spreads over the surrounding grass. In late summer it produces hundreds of seeds that will sprout the following year. Crabgrass seeds can remain in the soil for many years and sprout when the soil is disturbed.

Organic Solution:
The best defense is a good offense. Regular overseeding of your lawn will encourage a dense root system which will not provide space for Crabgrass to grow. Crabgrass is very rare in thick, healthy lawns that are mowed to a height of 3 inches (7.6 cm) this helps to keep the soil cooler thus inhibiting germination of Crabgrass seeds.
If you have had Crabgrass in the past, in early spring give the area a hard raking to dethatch it and remove the debris. You can then apply corn meal gluten, which will act as an organic pre-emeregent herbicide. Please note that since corn meal gluten is a pre-emergent, you cannot overseed your lawn until the fall if you use corn meal gluten in spring. The best way to organically control Crabgrass is to ensure that you keep your lawn mowed in late summer when the Crabgrass is putting up its purple seed stalks. This will prevent it from making seed for the future.

Non-organic Solution: Often, by the time Crabgrass is noticeable it is too late to treat, however there are chemical crabgrass treatments. Contact your local garden centre or hardware store for options in your area.

Dandelions

Dandelions are the bane of many peoples lawns. Thriving in thin, sparse turf, dandelion seeds float through the air looking for the slightest opening in the lawn to propagate. Meanwhile, below ground, they develop a taproot up to 10″ long. This taproot is thick but brittle and easily fractures and any piece of the taproot that remains in the ground will re-grow.

Organic Solution:
Regular overseeding of your lawn will encourage a dense root system which will not provide space for Dandelions to grow. Leave grass clippings on the lawn as they act as mulch helping to prevent Dandelion seeds from germinating. That said, if you do have Dandelions there are very few organic options. If there are only a few of them, you can dig them out by hand, try to get as much of the root as possible. There is also a biological agent called “Sarritor” which is a fungus that selectively attacks dandelions and some other broad leafed weeds while not harming grass. Check with your local garden centre or hardware store to see if they stock it. Another alternative is to pour boiling water on Dandelions as boiling water kills any and all plants. If you use boiling water you will need to re-seed the affected areas.

Non-organic Solution: If you are using a broadleafed herbicide, use one where the active ingredient is 2-4-D. The ideal time to use herbicides on Dandelions is in early fall when the leaves are transferring nutrients down to the roots. Herbicide applied in early fall will be absorbed by the leaves and passed on down to the roots.

Quackgrass

Native to Europe, Quackgrass is easy to identify. It produces long, wide-leafed grass and the grass blades have a rough almost burr-like feel to them. The thick, white roots form deep, dense mats and these roots tend to break easily when pulled leaving pieces in the soil after the grass has been removed. Any pieces left in the ground will quickly re-grow into new plants.

Organic Solution:
Again, the best defense is a good offense. Regular overseeding of your lawn will encourage a dense root system which will not provide space for Quackgrass to grow. Unfortunately, there are no organic products that are effective at eradicating Quackgrass. If the area affected is small, digging it up is a good option but be sure to get all of the roots. Frequent mowing is also an effective way to control this as mowing prevents Quackgrass from making seeds for the future. Be sure to keep the mowers blades set to a height of 3 inches. Another option to prevent Quackgrass from germinating is to apply Corn Meal Gluten in early spring as this acts as a pre-emergent herbicide. Please note that since corn meal gluten is a pre-emergent, you cannot overseed your lawn until the fall if you use corn meal gluten in spring. A further alternative is to pour boiling water on Quackgrass as boiling water kills any and all plants. If you use boiling water you will need to re-seed the affected areas.

Non-organic Solution: Spot spay in early spring or early fall with a non-selective herbicide containing glysophate (Round Up). As this also kills turf, you will need re-seed the areas you have sprayed.

Nut Sedge

Also known as Nut Grass, this wide-bladed bright green sedge grows at warp speed. Each grass blade has a thick mid-vein and a waxy coating. It has a shallow root system that produce many nut-like tubers which are underground food storage for the plant. Each tuber has up to seven viable buds and each one can grow and produce new plants. Each new plant also produces rhizomes that create new plants.

Organic Solution:
The most thorough way to rid your lawn of nut grass is by removing the entire plant, roots and all by digging it out by hand. Or you can coat the grass in sugar as an organic alternative.

Removal by Hand
Insert a gardening trowel directly next to the nut grass. Dig down as far as you can go. Nutsedge root systems can extend as deep down as 12 to 18 inches (30 to 46 cm) below the surface.

Gently pry the plant, roots and all, out of the ground. Doing this gently is vital to reduce the number of roots that break off, as well as the number of pieces those roots break into. Dig out any stray roots. If any roots remain, there is still some chance that the nutsedge can return.

Put the weeds into a garbage bag, along with the soil you dug out simultaneously. Dispose of the weeds in your trash. Do not throw them into a pile or into a compost heap, since you may end up spreading them into another area of your lawn by doing so.

Using Sugar

This method is most effective at the start of the growing season, when nutsedge is just barely beginning to germinate and sprout. Start by watering the lawn. You do not need to soak it, but the lawn should be evenly moist down to the soil.

Next sift sugar over you’re the lawn. Walk up and down the lawn in straight lines and at a steady pace. Pour the sugar through a sifter as you walk, continually turning the handle of the sifter. Make sure that the sugar falls on the grass in even amounts. This is no mere folk remedy. Sugar actually “eats” the nutsedge while also providing nourishing microbes that have a positive effect on your lawn.

Water the lawn once more, don’t saturate the grass, since that would wash the sugar away. Spray the lawn with a light mist, providing just enough water to re-moisten the blades of grass and coax the sugar down into the soil and the roots of the lawn.

Repeat this procedure at least twice more throughout the spring. The nutsedge may not die off completely after the first treatment but after a few applications of sugar all of it should be dead.

Non-organic Solution: Use herbicide before the nutsedge develops five true leaves. Leafy nutsedge has too many obstacles, preventing herbicides from sliding down to the “nuts” and the root. Herbicides work best early in the season, while nutsedge is still young and has minimal leaves.

Select an appropriate herbicide. Products that contain MSMA or products with a chemical called bentazon work best. Nutsedge is a common enough problem, so herbicides that work against the weed will be labeled as ” nutsedge or nut grass killers.”

Allow your lawn to grow for a few days prior to application. Herbicides works best when the nutsedge is growing vigorously and may not be as effective if applied immediately after cutting it down. Wait two or more days after your last lawn mowing before applying the chemical to the lawn.

Apply the herbicide during a dry period. Wait several days after your last watering and do not spray the herbicide if you may get rain four hours after application or if you expect heavy rains to follow in coming days. Water will wash the chemical away and it may not have the chance to do its job before that happens.

Read the instructions on the label of your herbicide bottle to determine how to apply it properly. You will usually spray diluted MSMA herbicide over your entire lawn. For instance, the instructions may tell you to mix 1.5 ounces (45 milliliters) of chemical into 5 gallons (20 liters) of water to treat 1000 square feet (92.9 square meters) of lawn.

See also  Seeded Weed

Repeat the treatment several times during the growing season. Eco-Lawn may need four to eight applications before the nutsedge dies off completely.

Typically occurring in shady, damp acidic soils, moss spreads through spores.

Organic Solution:
The best way to effectively and permanently eradicate moss in the lawn is to physically remove the moss. Start by raking the area with a hard rake to loosen it. Then using the edge of a flat shovel, scrape away the moss and remove the debris. Next, top dress the area with compost and to seed it with Eco-Lawn seed. Eco-Lawn is far more shade tolerant than most turfs and will out-compete moss growth. If the affected area has heavy or compacted soil, it is a good idea to loosen the soil to a depth of at least 3 inches and re-grade to allow drainage before sowing Eco-Lawn. You can also make a spray consisting of 4 ounces of dish soap to one gallon of water and drench the moss with the solution. The moss will turn orange/brown in 24 hours and will dry up.

Non-organic Solution: There are a number of moss killing pesticides such as “Moss Out!” available. Contact your local garden centre or hardware store for options in your area.

Bindweed

Bindweed is a vining plant that snakes across the ground. It has arrow shaped leaves and white/pink flowers that look like morning glories. Bindweed can grow four feet or more in length and develops deep roots.

Organic Solution:
Vigilance and persistence are required to control Bindweed, where you see it, cut it off at the soil level. Don’t try to pull it out as it will just re-sprout from its roots. By continually cutting it off at ground level as often as you can, will prevent the Bindweed from experiencing photosynthesis and thus it will eventually starve to death. Another alternative is to pour boiling water on Bindweed as boiling water kills all plants. If you use boiling water you will need to re-seed the affected areas.

Non-organic Solution: Spot spay in early spring or early fall with a non-selective herbicide containing glysophate (Round Up). As this also kills turf, you will need to re-seed the areas you have sprayed.

White Clover

White Clover also known as Dutch Clover is a cool-season perennial that is native to Europe and Asia. Low growing, it forms creeping stems (stolons) that produce roots and shoots along its stem. Being in the legume family, it fixes nitrogen into the soil which enables it to thrive in unfertilized areas.

Organic Solution:
There are very few organic controls for White Clover in the lawn. Corn Meal Gluten applied in early spring acts as a pre-emergent herbicide which will stop new White Clover seeds from germinating. Please note that since corn meal gluten is a pre-emergent, you cannot overseed your lawn until the fall if you use corn meal gluten in spring.
If you must get rid of established clover in the lawn hand pulling is the only really effective way. Time your hand pulling to be after the lawn has received a good, long rainfall or water the lawn very deeply before trying to hand pull them. A very moist soil will make the hand pulling a lot easier.

Non-organic Solution: Any commercial broadleafed weed killer will be effective on White Clover. Contact your local garden centre or hardware store for options in your area.

Cinquefoil

This perennial weed is often found in neglected lawns. It has a vigorous creeping habit as it spreads with creeping stems that take root at intervals along its way. The leaves of Cinquefoil resemble those of wild strawberry with each leaf having five heavily toothed leaflets. It produces yellow flowers with five heart shaped petals.

Organic Solution:
If there are not too many of them, hand weeding is effective. Raking the lawn prior to mowing will also help to weaken and discourage it.

Non-organic Solution: Chemical controls will require repeated applications to totally eradicate Cinquefoil. Contact your local garden centre or hardware store for options in your area.

Black Medic

Black Medic also called Yellow Trefoil is an annual species so it only lives one year but it makes a lot of seeds that can remain viable for several years. It’s seeds germinate in the spring and are capable of establishing in drought-prone or disturbed soils. Black medic is a legume, meaning that it has the capabilities to fix its own nitrogen; thus, allowing it to out compete turf in nutrient-poor soils as well. These factors, in combination with its ability to tolerate low mowing heights, make black medic a common weed in lawns.

Organic Solution:
Black medic is not shade tolerant, therefore the development of a thick, dense turfgrass canopy helps improve competition against it. Unfortunately repeated hand pulling is really the only good option, especially before it start to make seeds. You can also try using either a vinegar based or citric acid organic herbicide.

Non-organic Solution: A broadleafed weed killer that contains a combination of 2-4-D, dicamba and MCPP/MCPA will be effective. Contact your local garden centre or hardware store for options in your area.

Creeping Charlie

Creeping Charlie is a very aggressive lawn weed that is difficult to control when established in lawns. It has low growing, creeping stems that form new plants where they root at its nodes. The creeping, spreading, invasive nature of this weed, along with its preference for shady places makes it very competitive in lawns.

Organic Solution:
Repeated physical removal of Creeping Charlie by pulling or hard raking will, over time, prevent the Creeping Charlie from experiencing photosynthesis and thus it will exhaust its stored energy supply.
Research at Iowa State University found that borax can be used to selectively control Creeping Charlie in turf. To do so, dissolve 1 ounce of borax in 2-3 gallons of water and apply the solution uniformly over each 1,000 sq. ft. area. For small infestations dissolve 5 teaspoons of borax in one quart of water, this covers 25 sq. ft. Do not re-apply borax solutions more than once a year as borax contains boron, too much of which can be toxic to your lawn.

Non-organic Solution: A broadleafed weed killer that contains a combination of 2-4-D, dicamba and MCPP/MCPA will be effective. Contact your local garden centre or hardware store for options in your area.

Broadleaf Plantain

Broadleaf plantain is a perennial weed that tolerates a wide variety of growing conditions such as, dry soil, wet soil, heavy clay soil and low mowing heights. Left undisturbed, plantain can grow as much as 12 inches across and 2 feet tall.

Organic Solution:
If there are not too many of them, hand weeding is effective. Try to remove as much of the root system as possible. You may need to moisten the soil before trying to pull it out as it does make a deep tap root. Note: you may need to repeat this throughout the summer.

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Common Lawn Weeds and How to Get Rid of Them

Even the best-tended lawns come under attack from common weeds. Weed seeds float in on the wind, creeping weeds claim more territory, and weeds you thought you pulled quietly continue to grow. How well your lawn copes with the onslaught depends on the weeds involved, the response you choose and your lawn’s overall health. Understanding common lawn weeds and the options available to fight them can help you successfully combat the invasion.

To help simplify weed defense, we’ve charted 10 common lawn weeds, including their characteristics, type and how they spread, and most importantly- how to eliminate them. Weeds, like ornamental garden plants, can be annuals or perennials. Annual weeds, such as crabgrass, complete their entire life cycle in a single growing season, and then die, leaving seeds behind to continue the legacy. Perennial weeds, such as dandelions, come back year after year from their roots, and distribute new seeds to boot. Weeds can also be grass-like, broadleaf or sedge. Choosing the right weed control product requires understanding the weed you want to fight and its stage of growth. Pre-emergent weed controls, sometime called preventers, work to keep weed seeds from germinating and developing. Post-emergent weed controls fight weeds that have already germinated and emerged from the soil.

PLANTAIN

Characteristics:

  • Broad leaves with five prominent veins running from the base
  • Short, winged leaf stalk
  • Dense, erect flower spikes

Weed Type:

Broadleaf perennial with shallow, fibrous roots.

How it Spreads:

By small, angular seeds. The mature seeds in one spike will range in color from orange all the way to black. Spikes will include seeds in shades of brown between the two extremes.

Controls:

  • Pennington UltraGreen Weed and Feed 30-0-4
  • Pennington UltraGreen Southern Weed and Feed 34-0-4
  • IMAGE Kills Nutsedge

DANDELION

Weed Name:

Characteristics:

  • Serrated, comb- and tooth-like leaves
  • Hollow, leafless stalk
  • Yellow, petal-like flowers mature to white puffballs

Weed Type:

Broadleaf perennial with a long, deep taproot.

How it Spreads:

By seeds that germinate year-round in accommodating climates.

See also  How To Store Weed Seeds

Controls:

  • Pennington UltraGreen Weed and Feed 30-0-4
  • Pennington UltraGreen Southern Weed and Feed 34-0-4
  • IMAGE All-In-One Weed Killer
  • IMAGE Kills Nutsedge

CRABGRASS

Weed Name:

Characteristics:

  • Flat, pointed, narrow leaves, rolled at the base with a prominent midvein
  • Short, flat, purplish-green stems
  • Fringy, spike-like flower heads

Weed Type:

Annual summer grass that germinates throughout the season, capable of producing 150,000 seeds per plant, per season.

How it Spreads:

By seeds and lower stem pieces that root.

Controls:

Pennington UltraGreen Crabgrass Preventer Plus Fertilizer III 30-0-4

YELLOW NUTSEDGE

Weed Name:

Characteristics:

  • Grass-like leaves, v-shaped in cross-section
  • Erect, hairless, triangular stems
  • Golden-brown flower spikelets

Weed Type:

Perennial sedge that forms dense colonies.

How it Spreads:

By seeds and rhizomes, but primarily by underground tubers known as nutlets.

Controls:

  • IMAGE All-In-One Weed Killer
  • IMAGE Kills Nutsedge

THISTLE

Weed Name:

Characteristics:

  • Prickly, deeply-lobed leaves
  • Slender, hairless stems
  • White, purple or pink flowers

Weed Type:

Broadleaf with many annual and perennial species and seeds that remain viable for many years.

How it Spreads:

By seeds and root fragments.

Controls:

  • Pennington UltraGreen Weed and Feed 30-0-4

QUICKGRASS

Weed Name:

Characteristics:

  • Upright, flat, rough-edged, blue-green leaves
  • Leaf blade grasps the stem at its base
  • Flattened spike of alternating flowers and seeds

Weed Type:

Perennial grass most active during cool spring and fall seasons.

How it Spreads:

By seeds and rhizomes, but primarily by underground tubers known as nutlets.

Controls:

  • IMAGE All-In-One Weed Killer
  • IMAGE Kills Nutsedge

OXALIS (ALSO KNOWN AS CREEPING WOODSORREL)

Weed Name:

Characteristics:

  • Heart-shaped leaflets, often purplish, occur three per leaf and fold down in heat
  • Hairy, upright stems
  • Bright yellow spring flowers

Weed Type:

Broadleaf perennial with a shallow taproot and fibrous, expansive root system.

How it Spreads:

By creeping stems, extensive roots, pointed seed capsules that expel seeds, and root and stem fragments.

Controls:

  • Pennington UltraGreen Weed and Feed 30-0-4
  • IMAGE All-In-One Weed Killer
  • IMAGE for St. Augustinegrass & Centipedegrass

COMMON RAGWEED

Weed Name:

Characteristics:

  • Hairy, fernlike, deeply-lobed leaves
  • Coarse, hairy stems
  • Inconspicuous, green-yellow flowers

Weed Type:

Broadleaf annual (responsible for hay fever) with shallow, fibrous roots.

How it Spreads:

By seed, with a single plant producing up to 60,000 seeds or more per season.

Controls:

Pennington UltraGreen Weed and Feed 30-0-4

PURSLANE

Weed Name:

Characteristics:

  • Thick, purple-green, succulent leaves
  • Succulent, branching stems
  • Small, yellow flowers

Weed Type:

Broadleaf annual that develops thick, multi-branched mats.

How it Spreads:

By brown and black seed and stem fragments.

Controls:

  • Pennington UltraGreen Weed and Feed 30-0-4
  • IMAGE All-In-One Weed Killer

GROUND IVY

Weed Name:

Characteristics:

  • Rounded, scalloped leaves
  • Four-sided, mint-family, squared stems
  • Small, funnel-shaped, purple flowers

Weed Type:

Broadleaf, mat-forming perennial with a distinctive odor when crushed.

How it Spreads:

By seed and above-ground runners, known as stolons, that root at the nodes.

Controls:

  • Pennington UltraGreen Weed and Feed 30-0-4
  • IMAGE All-In-One Weed Killer

Weed-Control Options

When choosing weed-control products, take into consideration your target weeds, whether they’re still seeds or emerged plants, and the type of lawn grass you grow. Different types of weeds call for different controls, and some Southern lawn grasses, such as St. Augustinegrass and Centipedegrass, are sensitive to some weed-control products. Always check the label to make sure the product you choose is suitable for your lawn grass.

A top-notch weed-management program involves the following types of weed control products*:

  • Crabgrass Preventers: Crabgrass plants die after setting their seeds, but their seeds live on. Germination starts in spring, once soil temperatures reach approximately 55 degrees Fahrenheit – the same temperature that sends forsythia shrubs into bloom. Proper weed management works to stop those seeds from germinating and rid your lawn of any that sneak through. Pennington UltraGreen Crabgrass Preventer Plus Fertilizer III 30-0-4 inhibits germination and root development of crabgrass and stops many weed grasses and broadleaf weed seeds when applied in early spring, before weed seeds germinate. While controlling weeds for three to five months, this nitrogen-rich product continues to feed your lawn. Pennington UltraGreen Crabgrass Preventer Plus Fertilizer III 30-0-4 prevents crabgrass germination, suppresses other weed grass and broadleaf weed seeds and controls weed grass for three to five months while feeding your lawn with slow-release nitrogen.
  • Weed & Feed Fertilizers: As the name implies, weed & feed products tackle common lawn weeds while feeding lawn grasses to better help them act against weed invasion. Pennington UltraGreen Weed & Feed 30-0-4 and Pennington UltraGreen Southern Weed & Feed 34-0-4, both safe on Centipedegrass and St. Augustinegrass lawns, kill and suppress tough existing broadleaf weeds and control new weeds for up to three months in established lawns. Applied when weeds are actively growing in late spring and early summer, and again in early fall, these weed & feed products continue to feed your lawn grass and keep it beautiful and green.
  • Targeted Weed Control: When existing perennial weeds continue to be a problem, or when new weed seeds germinate and seedlings emerge, a targeted post-emergent herbicide is the answer. For best results, treat weeds while they’re small and actively growing throughout the season. IMAGE All-in-One Weed Killer herbicide offers a broad spectrum of selective weed control for difficult sedges, crabgrass and broadleaf weeds, killing weed roots, shoots and nutlets. These weed killers target weeds only and are suitable for most cool- and warm-season lawn grasses. IMAGE Kills Nutsedge and IMAGE Herbicide for St. Augustinegrass and Centipedegrass provide targeted, selective control of tenacious, emerged weeds.

Well maintained lawns naturally control weeds.

Keeping your lawn grass healthy and competitive provides the best defense against lawn weed invasions. Follow these four steps to a healthier, stronger lawn:

1. Always mow at the recommended mowing height for your type of lawn grass. This helps promote healthy root growth and increases resistance to pests and disease.

2. Mow based on grass growth, not your calendar. Time your mowing so you remove roughly one-third of the length of the grass blades in a single mowing.

3. Supplement natural rainfall by irrigating your lawn as needed. Proper watering provides an average lawn with the equivalent of about 1 inch of rainfall each week. This allows moisture to penetrate deeply and encourages healthy, deep root growth. Watering only once or twice per week is better than more frequent watering.

4. Keep your lawn well-fed with quality weed & feed or fertilizer-only products, such as the Pennington UltraGreen line of lawn fertilizers.

*Always consult the product label for your specific lawn grass type before using any type of weed control products.

Pennington is a trademark of Pennington Seed, Inc. Alaska, Lilly Miller, Moss Out!, Image and UltraGreen are registered trademarks of Central Garden & Pet Company.

Grassy Weeds

Grassy weeds are true grasses or monocots. A grass seed germinates and emerges as one single leaf. It develops hollow, rounded stems and nodes (joints) that are closed and hard. The leaf blades alternate on each side of the stem, are much longer than they are wide and have parallel veins.

A weed’s life cycle has great impact on the selection and success of a given control procedure, so it is important to learn the life cycle characteristics of a weed when you first learn its identity.

Annual weeds germinate from seeds, grow, flower, produce seeds and die in 12 months or less. Annual weeds are further categorized by the season in which they germinate and flourish. Winter annuals sprout in the fall, thrive during the winter and die in late spring or early summer. Summer or warm-season grasses such as crabgrass and goosegrass sprout in the spring and thrive in summer and early fall.

Perennial weeds are weeds that live more than two years. They reproduce from vegetative (non-seed) parts such as tubers, bulbs, rhizomes (underground stems) or stolons (above-ground stems), although some also produce seed. Perennial weeds are the most difficult to control because of their great reproductive potential and persistence.

Proper identification of weeds targeted for control is necessary in order to select effective control measures, whether cultural or chemical. Further assistance with weed identification is available from any Clemson Extension office.

Annual Bluegrass

Life Cycle & Description: Annual bluegrass (Poa annua) is a winter annual weed that emerges in early fall, persists through the winter, produces seed in early spring and then dies in late spring or early summer. Annual bluegrass reproduces by seed.

Annual bluegrass (Poa annua) is a cool weather annual grass weed that produces seed heads in the early spring.
Joey Williamson, ©2015 HGIC, Clemson Extension

Annual bluegrass prefers shady, moist sites and invades weak, thin lawn areas, especially low spots and flower beds where standing water occurs. It mainly germinates in late summer through early fall when nighttime air temperatures drop to the mid-70s. This usually occurs from September 15 to October 1 in the Coastal Plain and Sandhills areas, and September 1 to 15 in the Piedmont and Mountain areas. Further germination occurs in early winter with warm days and cold nights.

Annual bluegrass produces a white-colored, pyramid-shaped seedhead in the spring. It dies in the summer with the onset of high temperatures and/or dry conditions.

Annual bluegrass has smooth, apple-green leaves with two clear lines, one on each side of the midrib that run down the length of the leaf blade. The edges of the leaf tip curve inward like the front of a boat.

Control: Handpulling is a simple, practical approach for small areas. Improve the health and density of the lawn by fertilizing at the right time and with the correct amount; maintaining an appropriate soil pH; mowing at the recommended height; and watering properly. Apply a 2- to 3-inch layer of mulch to ornamental bed areas to suppress germinating weed seeds. Finally, improve surface drainage. Preemergence herbicides are available depending on the kind of turfgrass and ornamental plants grown. Apply preemergence herbicides to established lawns before the annual bluegrass seeds germinate. Once annual bluegrass emerges, preemergence herbicides are generally ineffective.

Selective postemergence herbicides are available for annual bluegrass control. These are best applied in November or early December when the weed is small, thus most susceptible to control. See Tables 1 & 2 for pre-emergence and post-emergence control. Apply all chemicals according to directions on the label.

Crabgrass & Goosegrass

Life Cycle & Description: Crabgrasses (Digitaria species) are summer annuals that germinate in the spring at about the time crabapple and forsythia bloom, when the air temperature is warm enough to promote crabgrass seed germination. They produce seed from midsummer to fall and are then killed by the first freeze in autumn. Crabgrass reproduces by seed.

Crabgrass can be identified by its tufted or prostrate growth habit, hairy stems, broad leaves and flower spikes with two to nine finger-like branches. This weed appears in disturbed areas, weak or thin turf areas and in edges of the lawn next to sidewalks and drives.

Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) is a tough, clump-forming summer annual with white to silver coloring near its base. Unlike crabgrass, goosegrass has flat stems and does not root at the lower nodes. It germinates a few weeks after crabgrass in late spring and produces seed from summer to early fall. The flowers and seeds are produced in two rows like a zipper on two to 13 finger-like branches at the top of the stem. Goosegrass is killed at the first freeze, and reproduces entirely from seed.

Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) can be identified by the white to silver color near the base of the grass clump.
Joey Williamson, ©2015 HGIC, Clemson Extension

Control: Handpulling is a simple, practical approach for small areas. Improve the health and density of the lawn by fertilizing at the right time and with the correct amount; reducing soil compaction; maintaining an appropriate soil pH; mowing at the recommended height; and watering properly. Apply a 2- to 3-inch layer of mulch to ornamental bed areas to suppress germinating weed seeds.

Preemergence and postemergence herbicides are available depending on the kind of turfgrass in your lawn. Preemergence herbicides provide about 2 to 2 1/4 months of control. Repeat applications would be required 60 days later for season-long control. Apply preemergence herbicides March 1 from the Coastal Plain to the Sandhills regions, and March 15 to 30 in the Piedmont and Mountain areas. Fall-seeded turfgrasses should not be treated with a preemergence herbicide until the following spring. See Tables 1 & 2 for pre-emergence and post-emergence control. Apply all chemicals according to directions on the label.

Sandbur

Life Cycle & Description: Southern sandbur, or sandspur (Cenchrus eschinatus), and field or coast sandspur (Cenchrus incertus) are summer annuals that germinate in the spring, grow during the summer and early fall and die with the first heavy frost. The name “sandspur” describes the sandpapery feel of their leaves and the spurs or burs that are produced from July until the first frost. Both reproduce by seeds. Sandspur tends to be more of a problem on sandy soils from the Coastal Plain westward to the Sandhills.

Control: Handpulling with gloved hands is a simple, practical approach to control sandspur in small areas. Improve the health and density of the lawn by fertilizing at the right time and with the correct amount; maintaining an appropriate soil pH; mowing at the recommended height; and watering properly. Apply a 2- to 3-inch layer of mulch to ornamental bed areas to suppress germinating weed seeds.

This annual weed can be controlled with a preemergence herbicide applied in early spring (March 1 in the Coastal areas to March 15 in Piedmont areas). Repeat in 60 days. Select an herbicide that can be safely used on your lawn.

See Tables 1 & 2 for pre-emergence and post-emergence control. Apply all chemicals according to directions on the label.

Table 1. Pre-emergence Herbicides to Prevent Grassy Weeds in Residential Lawns.

Weeds Prevented Active Ingredients Examples of Brands & Products
Annual grass weeds including crabgrass & annual bluegrass benefin Pennington
Crabgrass
Preventer
Same as for benefin, plus goosegrass oryzalin Southern Ag Surflan A.S. (40.4%)
Same as above benefin + oryzalin Helena XL2G (1% & 1%)
UPI Surflan [email protected] (1% & 1%)
Green Light Amaze Grass & Weed Preventer (1% & 1%)
Summer annual grasses, annual bluegrass, some selected annual broadleaf weeds benefin + trifluralin Anderson Turf Products 2% Team Herbicide DG (1.33% &0.67%)
Hi-Yield Crabgrass Control
Same as for benefin, plus oxalis & speedwell pendimethalin Anderson Turf Products 1.71% Pendimethal in DG
Scotts Halts Crabgrass & Grassy Weed
Preventer (1.71%)
Harrell’s 0-0-10 with 0.86% Pendimethalin
Same as for benefin, plus oxalis dithiopyr Anderson Turf Products 0.25% Pendimethal in DG
Bonide Crabgrass & Weed Preventer for Lawns & Ornamental Beds (0.27%)
Hi Yield Turf & Ornamental Weed & Grass Stopper Containing Dimension (0.125%)
StaGreen CrabEx Crabgrass & Weed Preventer (0.25%)
summer annual grasses, annual bluegrass, some selected weeds such as chickweed, spurge, goosegrass prodiamine Helena Pro-Mate Barricade & Fertilizer 0-0-7 (available with 0.22, 0.375, or 0.435%)
Howard Johnson Crabgrass Control with Prodiamine & 0-0-7 (0.86%)
Lebanon Pro Fertilizer (0-0-7) with Prodiamine (0.38% or 0.43%)
Lesco Stonewall Plus Fertilizer (0-0-7) (available with 0.20, 0.29, 0.37, or 0.43%)
Lesco Barricade Plus Fertilizer 0-0-7 (0.43%)
Scotts Halts Pro 0-0-7 & Halts Pro (0.28%)
Harrell’s 0-0-7 with 0.21% Barricade
Harrell’s 0-0-7 with 0.30% Barricade
Harrell’s 0-0-7 with 0.45% Barricade
Southern States Pro Turf 0-0-7 with 0.38% Barricade

Table 2. Post-emergence Herbicides to Control Existing Grassy Weeds in Residential Lawns.

Weeds Controlled Active Ingredients Examples of Brands & Products
annual & perennial grasses, such as crabgrass, foxtails, goosegrass, sandbur; bermudagrass suppression fenoxaprop
(for fescue lawns only)
Aventis Acclaim Extra
Bayer Advanced Crabgrass Concentrate (6.59%) Killer for Lawns RTS (0.41%)
annual & perennial grasses control. Excellent control of crabgrass; good control of bermudagrass, sandspur, bahiagrass & goosegrass sethoxydim
(for centipedegrass lawns only)
Arrest (by Whitehall Institute) (13%)
Segment (by BASF) (13%)
Excellent control of crabgrass; fair control of dallisgrass, foxtails, & signalgrass. Also, most broadleaf weeds, such as dollarweed, black medic, wild onion & garlic, speedwells, plantains, dandelion, white clover, violets, henbit, chickweed, star of Bethlehem quinclorac + 2,4-D + dicamba (for fescue, zoysiagrass, & bermudagrass 1 ) Bayer Advanced All-in-One Lawn Weed & Crabgrass Killer Concentrate
Bonide Weed Beater Plus Crabgrass & Broadleaf Weed Killer RTS
Ferti-lome Weed Out with Crabgrass Control RTS
Monterey Crab-E-Rad Plus RTS
Ortho Weed B Gon Max Plus Crabgrass
Control RTS
Excellent control of crabgrass; fair control of dallisgrass, foxtails, & signalgrass. Also most broadleaf weeds, such as dollarweed, black medic, speedwells, plantains, dandelion, white clover, violets, henbit, chickweed, star of Bethlehem, & nutsedges. quinclorac + 2,4-D +
dicamba + sulfentrazone
(for fescue, zoysiagrass & bermudagrass 1 )
Spectracide Weed Stop for Lawns Plus
Crabgrass Killer RTS
Excellent control of crabgrass; fair control of dallisgrass, foxtails, & signalgrass; Also, some broadleaf weeds, such as dollarweed, black medic, violets, speedwells, dandelion, white clover, nutsedges, chickweed, star of Bethlehem, & henbit. quinclorac + sulfentrazone
(for fescue, zoysiagrass & bermudagrass 1 )
Image Kills Crabgrass – Water Dissolving Granules
Very good control of annual bluegrass; fair control of crabgrass, sandspur, bahiagrass, fescue, & bermudagrass; poor control of goosegrass, & dallisgrass. Also many broadleaf weeds. atrazine (for St. Augustinegrass & centipedegrass) Hi-Yield Atrazine Weed Killer (4.0%) Concentrate
Southern Ag Atrazine St. Augustine Weed Killer (4.0%) Concentrate
Image Herbicide for St. Augustine &
Centipede with Atrazine RTS (4.0%)
Annual & perennial grass control, including bermudagrass, crabgrass, foxtail, goosegrass, torpedograss, johnsongrass fluazifop-
P-butyl (for Tall Fescue & Zoysiagrass
Gordon’s Ornamec 170 Grass Herbicide (1.7%)
1 Products containing quinclorac may cause temporary yellowing or discoloration of bermudagrass.

Pesticides are updated annually. Last updates were done on 7/22 by Barbara Smith.

Originally published 09/99

If this document didn’t answer your questions, please contact HGIC at [email protected] or 1-888-656-9988.

Author(s)

Robert F. Polomski, PhD, Associate Extension Specialist, Clemson University
Bert McCarty, PhD, Turf Specialist, Clemson University

This information is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement of brand names or registered trademarks by the Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service is implied, nor is any discrimination intended by the exclusion of products or manufacturers not named. All recommendations are for South Carolina conditions and may not apply to other areas. Use pesticides only according to the directions on the label. All recommendations for pesticide use are for South Carolina only and were legal at the time of publication, but the status of registration and use patterns are subject to change by action of state and federal regulatory agencies. Follow all directions, precautions and restrictions that are listed.

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