cbd hemp oil production

Cbd hemp oil production

The CBD levels can be much reduced by cross-pollination with wild or non-CBD hemp. The CBD plants must be well-separated by distance or time of pollination from hemp weeds or another hemp crop. Also, a few rows of corn or forage sorghum can planted around the plots to reduce pollen flow.

Demand for CBD, a non-psychoactive compound derived from hemp, has soared for un-validated treatment of many conditions and illnesses. However, an approximate 75% plummet in prices for the CBD feedstock during 2019 indicates that the supply exceeded demand.

Hemp CBD varieties have not been well-validated for Nebraska but possibilities may include ‘Abocus’, ‘Autopilot’, ‘Boax’, Cherry Wine, Cherry Blossom, Cobbler, and Sweetgrass for high pharmaceutical-grade CBD yield but having less than 0.3% THC.. High CBD varieties are generally grown only as female plants, as the combination of male and female plants leads to seed production and decreased CBD yield. Breeders continue to improve the processes for creating stable feminized seed. Farmers need to be wary of the source of their feminized seed stock and to check test results for validation of feminized seed.

CBD Demand

Figure 1. Hemp variety best suited for CBD production.

CBD-containing products marketed in the US range from cosmetics to chocolate bars to bottled water to pet treats, all with no regulation. The Food and Drug Administration warned marketers of CBD products against the use of non-validated health claims to sell their products. In June 2019 the FDA approved the first CBD-based drug, called Epidiolex, to treat seizures caused by extreme types of epilepsy. The efficacy of CBD for treatment of chronic pain, neuro-inflammation, anxiety, addiction, and anti-psychotic effects has not been well-validated by clinical research.

Farmers need to know state regulations for testing hemp for CBD and THC. The Nebraska Department of Agriculture (NDA) regulations for industrial hemp production have been approved by USDA. Plant sampling by NDA staff to test for THC needs to be within 15 days before the date of harvest with the grower present during sampling. If the THC level is >0.3% by dry weight, the crop will not meet the legal definition of industrial hemp and need to be destroyed. Again, THC is expected to increase with stressful growing conditions.

Drying the plant material is a major operation as the water content is high when harvested. To reduce the quantity to be dried and handled for CBD production, the woody stems may be removed for land application, composting or dried separately for fiber production. Artificial drying at up to 100 o F should be continuous flow but the temperature of the plant material should not exceed 75 o F. Suspending plants or branches upside down by wires indoors out of the sun and with good air movement for air drying at up to 75 o F is a common practice if the harvest is not too large.

Cbd hemp oil production

CBD oil extraction

Air emissions from CBD oil extractors can come from several sources. Most unique to this industry would be the extraction process itself. Ethanol is a common extraction solvent, but when it evaporates, it would result in a Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions. Even if ethanol is not used as the primary solvent, it may be used for additional extraction during the process. Other solvents, some of which may result in Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs), may also be used and would need to be calculated to determine air emissions from the facility. The guidance explains how to calculate emissions based on emission factors or mass balance. Another method would be test results from the manufacturer of extraction equipment. In addition to the extraction process, air emissions can come from boilers, emergency engines, or other processes that may emit air emissions. Depending on the amount of potential emissions from a facility, an Air Pollution Control Construction Permit may be needed.

Waste issues are mostly related to the spent plant material following extraction. If ethanol or other solvents aren’t sufficiently removed from the plant material, the plant material could be considered a hazardous waste. Disposal of such would require notification as a generator of hazardous waste and must comply with storage, recordkeeping, and handling requirements. Waste that is not considered hazardous may be classified as a special waste, which allows for multiple reuse options including land-use application.

The growing of hemp is regulated by the TN Department of Agriculture. The Department of Agriculture has several pages of information available on their website, including the steps to get started, forms and publications, and rules and regulations surrounding this industry. Part of the rules and regulations relates to required testing of hemp crops to determine the amount of THC the plants contain. If the plant is found to contain more than 0.3% THC, the Department of Agriculture will issue a departmental directive or destruction order.

Water issues would tend to fall into three main categories: Construction, operation, and local publically owned treatment works (POTW). A construction storm water permit would be needed if an acre or more of land is disturbed. An operating permit would generally apply to industrial storm water unless a Notification of No Exposure is submitted. The local POTW would have authority over what discharges are sent to the local wastewater treatment facility as each POTW has different capacities and capabilities. If a CBD oil extractor is not located in an area where their wastewater would go to a POTW, they may need to discuss with the TDEC Environmental Field Offices concerning the ability of a septic system to handle the waste water.